- Appropriately using lips, mouth, tongue, and voice to produce phonemes in isolation, syllables, words, sentences, and connected speech.
- Speech Sound Disorder: a disorder with specific phonemes.
- Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS): difficulty coordinating, planning the sequence of movements involved in producing speech.
- Phonological Processes Disorder: consistent simplification of phoneme productions often decreasing speech intelligibility.
African American Dialect along with other dialectical differences are not considered as a disorder and are not treated. Examples:
- African American: producing /f/ for “th” (wif/with)
- Spanish: /y/ for “j’ (yump/jump)
- Haitian Creole: /h/ omission (ello/hello)
What is a Speech Sound Disorder?
A speech sound disorder (SSD) or speech disorder refers to a person who has difficulty acquiring and producing intelligible speech (articulation/phonology), fluent speech without typical dysfluent occurrences (fluency), or difficulty with volume or pitch during speech production(voice).
- Articulation: difficulty producing one or more sounds
- Phonological Disorder: consistent errors involving manner, place, position
- Motor Speech Disorder: delays due to Childhood Apraxia
- Structurally-based Speech Sound Disorder: delays due to anatomical differences
- Syndrome based Speech Sound Disorders: delays due to syndromes (i.e., Down Syndrome)
Bowen, C. (2011). Classification of children’s speech sound disorders. Retrieved from https://www/speech-language-therapy.com/index.php?option=com_content&viewarticle&id=45 on May 5, 2020.